Technology of laser beam welding -- to solder quality is offerred assure reliably

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Because have high energy density,laser beam welding is received, can penetrate focusing, greatly, efficient, high accuracy and adaptability are strong wait for an advantage, be taken seriously by the height of each car manufacturer. Chang'an Ford horse amounts to the laser beam welding that introduced Ford maturity from the initial stage that build a plant to receive a technology oneself, raised automobile body greatly solder quality. Laser beam welding is a kind of when the laser that uses high energy density serves as heat source efficient, nicety solder method. Wait for the swift and violent development of the industry as aerospace, car, microelectronics, form of product part structure is more and more complex, people machines precision and exterior integrality to the product, and the demand that produces environment of efficiency, work is higher and higher, solder traditionally the method satisfies a requirement hard, what be a delegate with laser is high-energy solder the method gets applied extensively. Because have high energy density,laser beam welding is received, can penetrate focusing, greatly, efficient, high accuracy and adaptability are strong wait for an advantage, be taken seriously by the height of each car manufacturer. Ford factory in 20 centuries 80 time used this technology extensively already, chang'an Ford horse amounts to the laser beam welding that introduced Ford maturity from the initial stage that build a plant to receive a technology oneself, raised automobile body greatly solder quality. The principle of laser beam welding and characteristic laser beam welding are received is the laser high strenth bundle radiation comes metallic surface, pass the interaction of laser and metal, after the metal absorbs heat energy of laser translate into to make a metal fused, cooling crystallization is formed solder. What export energy way by laser is different, laser beam welding can divide smooth solder of the swash that it is arteries and veins and successive laser beam welding (include high frequency pulse successive laser beam welding) ; Those who press density of the power on spot of laser focusing gloriole is different, laser beam welding can be divided to conduct heat solder and deep fusion welding; Divide again in laser deep fusion welding for butt welding (drill rod solder) and build receive solder, former need writes drill rod material, the exterior is beautiful. The advantage of laser beam welding basically includes: Laser focus facula is small, power density is high, can solder the alloy material of a few high melting point, high strenth; Laser beam welding is not to have osculatory treatment, wait for a problem without tool loss and tool exchange; Laser energy and floating rate are adjustable, can realize a variety of soldering to machine; Automation rate is high, can undertake controlling with the computer, solder speed fast, effect is tall, can have any complex figure conveniently solder; Hot influence area and material are out of shape small, need not processing of follow-up working procedure; Laser can pass glass, weld reachs the workpiece that is in position of complex structure interior at the workpiece inside vacuum container; Easily oriented, focusing, realize each direction commutation; Laser solders to be compared with electron beam treatment, do not need rigid vacuum equipment system, the operation is convenient; Manufacturing efficiency is tall, treatment quality is stable and reliable, economy and social benefit are good. Laser beam welding receives equipment laser beam welding to receive facility basically by laser (solid, gas, semiconductor) , the protector of the cooling system that guides optical system, control system, workpiece assembles the main part such as clip and athletic system and optical element, optical system, process and quality. 1.

Laser basically has CO2 gas laser and YAG solid laser with the laser that receives at laser beam welding two kinds. Power of CO2 gas laser is great, it is the laser that at present deep fusion welding basically uses, but set out from actual application, in car domain, the application of YAG solid laser is wider. As the swift and violent development of science and technology, the applied all the more of semiconductor laser is extensive, because its are had cover an area of a face to accumulate small, power small, light can conduct big, cooling system, spare parts changes frequency and fare are low the advantage favors by the user, the technical parameter of the solid laser that Chang'an Ford horse amounts to plant institute to use oneself and semiconductor laser expresses place to show as follows quite. The technical parameter contrast of solid laser and semiconductor laser is expressed 2.

The deferent, direction that light guides and focusing system light guides focusing system realizes laser and focus are controlled. The condition of optical lens to soldering quality is having very main effect, because this wants,undertake be maintenanced regularly to optical lens. 3.

Solder the robot solders the robot reachs control system as motion, can control laser beam welding accurately to receive orbit, carry dog automatically system, assure to solder quality is stable, reliable. The horse of applied Chang'an Ford of laser beam welding amounts to a factory to use laser beam welding to receive a technology to basically be in to the joint of automobile body coping and side wall oneself undertake soldering, have cut to the partial part of automobile body. After using laser beam welding, can achieve the molecular union between two plank, and plank is out of shape dinky, have join space hardly, promote automobile body intensity thereby 30% . In addition, what form because of laser beam welding is successive welding line, through burnish implement the surface after burnish is very smooth, smooth, more beautiful than common spot welding on the exterior (if pursue,1 is shown) . Graph exterior of welding line of solder of 1 laser drill rod 1.

Butt welding (drill rod solder) in Meng Di Ou Zhisheng model solders in, we used technology of solder of laser drill rod. Serve as heat source with laser, serve as drill rod makings with cupreous silk, as motion with the robot control system undertakes efficient, clean solder. The component of system of solder of laser drill rod and function basically include: (1) robot (German KUKA) : Dominate athletic contrail, attitude and laser action. (2) machine sending silk (FRONIUS) : Place of laser copper solder uses welding wire by this device control character, speed sending silk, send silk to begin to wait to send machine sending silk to undertake controlling by robot program with end time and warm-up parameter. (3) laser (German LASERLINE) : Offer solder requires energy, power of laser of the biggest output is 4kW, the energy of use 2 700W undertakes soldering, double passageway is outputted. Nextpage (4) condenser (German RIEDEL) : Undertake dropping in temperature to laser source cooling water, use heat exchanger, what its interior uses is " tap water " , stimulating what illuminant uses is distilled water, its quantity of heat is taken away through workshop loop water. (5) focusing system (German HIGHYAG) : To smooth focusing, contain prevent bump, the function such as mechanical fixed position. (6) welder: Laser copper solder uses butt welding, inter filling material. (7) test clamping apparatus: Should have solder when quality problem, need to solder on this clamping apparatus test specimen, adjust groove. What solder of laser drill rod uses is butt welding, be adjusted to the program and equipment stability demand is higher, few fluctuant bring about likely discard as useless truckloadly. Its affect the element of quality to include: Electric current of traversal speed of position of laser head focusing, robot, speed sending silk, warm-up and cupreous silk quality. Common quality problem: Leakage solder, alveolus, solder is worn reach welding wire to fuse not congruent. If length is less than 100mm,can fill with plasma MIG solder (copper) ; Length is more than 100mm, need to use laser filling solder. 2.

Build receive solder to should solder means basically is used in VOLVO model, serve as heat source with laser, control a system as motion with the robot, without drill rod makings, two plank combine means to be received to build. Laser builds the component of the system that receive solder and function to include: (1) robot (ABB) : Control solders traversal speed, focusing system attitude, solder parameter. (2) focusing dogs system (Swedish PERMANOVA) : Control welding line detects, orbit guiding and safety defend etc. (3) focusing system (Swedish PERMANOVA) : Adjust beam of light, focusing, cooperate to use with software. (4) workpiece: Use build receive solder. (5) laser (TRUMPF) : Offer solder requires energy. (6) automobile body fixed position controls device: Undertake fixed to automobile body, build workpiece coordinate to fasten afresh by switch of robot consumed phone. Should solder means stability is taller, technology is sophisticated without solder of laser drill rod, the exterior is beautiful. 3.

Laser beam welding receives quality control to receive quality to assure the laser beam welding of each car eligible, the quality that Chang'an Ford horse amounts to a factory to have to perfect oneself detects hierarchy of control. Laser beam welding receives quality control to basically be analysed by photograph of visual examination, brilliant with pull test 3 much are comprised, departmental cent has detect accordingly index and technical standards requirement. Bodywork is versed in from laser beam welding after coming out, by field work person undertake checking to exterior of welding line of laser beam welding, if solder undesirable have repair or discard as useless. In the meantime, a car has every months of sampling observation destroy an experiment, have brilliant photograph analysis and pull test to welding line of laser beam welding (if pursue,2 are shown) . Graph 2 laser beam welding receive quality to control the applied problem with common laser beam welding 1.

Solder of stomatic, leakage, solder wears appear the main influencing factor of this problem has: Solder pressure (build receive solder) , protective gas, solder conforms position of slash, focusing reachs system sending silk (butt welding) . Technology of solder of laser drill rod is more sophisticated, taller to technical requirement, it is its glow, better to send silk and the time difference that know electric current to want to achieve cooperate, ability assures effectively solder the stability of quality. Be united in wedlock in coping and side wall only then end and extreme place, if appear to be mixed more too without silk, silk,burn wear wait for a problem, the time difference of the light in adjustable program, silk and electric current will solve. 2.

Midway stops solder at present, this problem is generally on the application that laser beam welding of domestic and international car receives. As a whole, main component is its influencing factor software and hardware two respects. Hardware respect basically includes: Stimulate system of illuminant, focusing, fiber-optic, condenser, machine sending silk and robot. Software side basically includes: Program of system of process of stability of robot program, PLC program, safe PLC program, voltage, laser, focusing and contrail dog bootstrap. Among them, PLC program and voltage stability are more to this breakdown influence, because the sources of energy is at present more nervous, and partial plant fails in the initial stage that build a plant high-power equipment and accurate equipment (control system) road of power supply cord parts effectively, cause factory interior voltage wave motion is bigger, laser beam welding receives equipment to cannot work normally, breakdown frequency is tall. When editing PLC program, because considered overmuch and the each other lock with needless part, cause exterior condition occurrence minimum to change, laser and robot quit the job. 3.

Laser out of control (safe) when designing laser beam welding to receive equipment bus line to join, want mature to security, if bus line appears breakdown, how does the robot realize the control to laser, stop laser? From the graph 3 can see, in PROFIBUS bus line, laser source serves as a robot child station, and the robot serves as PLC again child station. In SAFETYBUS bus line, robot and laser source serve as safe PLC child station. But this blueprint has a problem, because bus line watchdog is not had between laser source and robot, once the bus line of the robot appears,one shines, because diagnose mistake of oneself bus line to suspend campaign,the robot is met, but the break alarm that laser cannot get the robot sends, can appear the robot stops, the quicksand with ceaseless laser. Happen to avoid this problem, if pursue,can use 3 on the measure of green line section, send signal PLC through the robot namely, pass safe PLC by PLC again, stop laser finally by safe PLC; Also can regard PLC as laser source child station, be undertaken controlling directly by PLC. Graph the rapid development that 3 bus line design epilogue laser beam welding to receive a technology to pass a few years, already arrived deep include automobile industry inside many domains. Efficient, quick, automatic unifinication, make laser beam welding received a technology to hold great dominant position, but also reveal an a few problems at the same time, stability and cost respect and common resistance welding are compared, still remain to rise. Laser beam welding receives a technology to amount to the application of the factory oneself in Chang'an Ford horse, raised car constitution to measure not only, make car quality has competition ability more, and foster and exercised technology of a batch of laser to use a talented person, after be, the laser beam welding of the model received technical application to lay in energy. CNC Milling